The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening. The conspirators had then planned to abduct the royal children, (who were Protestant) not present in Parliament, and incite a revolt in the Midlands.
The Gunpowder Plot was one of many unsuccessful assassination attempts against James I, and followed the Main Plot and Bye Plot of 1603.
The aims of the conspirators are frequently compared to modern terrorists; however, this is an anachronistic application of a modern concept. The plotter's aims were nothing short of a total revolution in the government of England, which would have killed the King along with leading noblemen and led to the installation of a Catholic monarch. As such the plot was regarded as a treasonous act of attempted regicide. Far from helping their fellow Catholics avoid religious persecution, the plotters put many loyal Catholics in a difficult position.
This is an audiobook of Antonia Fraser's 'The Gunpowder Treason and Plot: Terror & Faith in 1605'.